Breakfast in French Style (Petit Dejeuner)

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Breakfast in French Style (Petit Dejeuner)

Breakfast in French Style (Petit Dejeuner)
Breakfast in French Style (Petit Dejeuner)

The word Breakfast means to break the fast after a long time. It originally started in England where they used to have a lot of courses. The different types of breakfasts are :

  • Continental
  • American
  • English

Continental Breakfast or Café Complet or the Complet

This breakfast is a European breakfast. It comprises of:

Choice of Juice: Mango juice, Pineapple juice, tomato juice, Orange juice or Grapefruit Juice etc.

Choice of Bread: Toast (white bread / brown bread), rolls, croissant, Brioche, Muffins, Doughnuts, Danish Pastry served with preserves, jam, Honey, Marmalade and butter.

Tea/Coffee: If tea is served with this breakfast, it is known as The Complet. If coffee is served along with this breakfast, it is known as Café Complet.

Café Simple or The Simple: if the guest orders only coffee then it is called Café Simple. If the guests’ orders only tea it is called The Simple.

Cutlery Required For Continental Breakfast: Aside plate or quarter plate with side knife, butter dish with underliner and butter spreader, toaster rack, tea/coffee pot, sugar bowl, milk pot/Creamer.

American Breakfast

It starts with a glass of cold water. Consists of the table d’ Hote breakfast Menu which one would generally find in the menu card of any 5-star hotel.

Choice of Juice: Mango, Pineapple, tomato, Orange, Grapefruit.

Cereals: Choice of cornflakes, oatmeal, porridge, rice crispies, wheat flakes served with cold or hot milk.

Eggs to Order: Scrambled, poached, boiled, Omelette, served bacon, ham or sausages.

Choice of Bread: B/F Toast, rolls, Brioche, croissant with preserves like batter jam, marmalade, and honey.

Breakfast in French Style (Petit Dejeuner)
Breakfast in French Style (Petit Dejeuner)

English Breakfast

English breakfast is a very elaborate breakfast. It comprises of ten courses.

Choice of Juice: Pineapple, Tomato, Grapefruit, Orange, Mango, etc.

Steward Fruits: Apples, Prunes, figs, pears, etc. are cut into small pieces and cooked in sugar syrup flavoured with clove and cinnamon. It is served in a cocktail cup with a quarter plate as underliner and the cutlery provided as a teaspoon.

Cereals: Oatmeal (meal), cornflakes, wheat flakes, rice crispies, porridge are served with cold or hot milk in a soup bowl with a quarter plate as underliner and a dessert spoon is provided as cutlery.

Fish: Herring, Haddock, Kedgres, sardines are served.

Eggs to Order: Omelette, boiled eggs, scrambled egg, poached or fried eggs.

Meat: Grilled bacon, sausages, ham, salami, Kidney or liver are served.

Choice of Rolls or Toast: Toast white or brown or rolls –like a croissant, muffins, Briche, Doughnuts, Danish pastry are served.

Butter and Preserves: butter, jam, honey, marmalade, maple syrup are served in this course.

Fruits: fresh fruits like melon, papaya, mango, orange, grapefruit, pears are served in this course.

Beverages: Tea/Coffee or hot Bournvita, Milo, Horlicks, Ovaltine, Cocco, etc can be served.

Breakfast Recipes

Breakfast is considered by some to be one of the most difficult and thankless meals to master.

There are endless varieties of egg preparations alone.  The chef must have the skill to quickly meet each early – morning patron’s specific request. 

Although these are considered breakfast items, many of these items may also be served at brunch, lunch, or dinner. 

Quiche, in particular, is often paired with salad at lunch, or baked in tartelette pans and served as canapés.

Muffins, Danish, bagels, and fresh bread prepared on the premises are also excellent breakfast items.

The recipes are arranged as follows:

Boiled and Poached Eggs

Fried eggs and Omelets

Baked eggs and Quiches



Pancakes and Other Batters

Breakfast Meats

Fruits, Beverages, and Butters

Soft-Cooked Eggs

Breakfast in French Style (Petit Dejeuner)
Breakfast in French Style (Petit Dejeuner) (12) (1)


If the eggs are used directly from the refrigerator, temper them in warm water before cooking them.

Place the eggs in boiling water. Time the cooking from the point that the boiling resumes. For coddled eggs in the shell, cook for 2 to 5 minutes.  For soft eggs in a glass, cook for 4 minutes.  For soft eggs, cook for 5 minutes.

Shock the eggs in cold water for 2 to 3 seconds. Serve them warm.  Serve the coddled eggs in the shell in an egg stand: peel the soft eggs and arrange them as poached eggs.

Hard-Boiled Eggs

Eggs, Cold

Place the eggs in a pot. Fill the pot with enough cold water to cover the eggs.

Bring the water to a gentle boil and immediately lower the temperature to a simmer: Begin timing the cooking at this point.

Cook small eggs for 12 minutes, medium eggs for 13 minutes, large eggs for 14 to 15 minutes, and extra-large eggs for 15 minutes.

Serve the eggs hot in the shell (2 per portion), or cool them quickly in cool water and peel as soon as possible for cold preparations.

Mise En Place for Breakfast Preparation

All food preparation requires thorough mise en place to ensure quality food and expeditious production. 

However, when foods are to be prepared to order (as ordered by the customer in the dining room) with only minimal precooking of items, mise en place is of paramount importance.

This is the case with breakfast, which is often prepared to the order. Many of the items associated with breakfast do not readily lend themselves to being cooked and held for even short periods of time.

For example, pancakes and waffles become dry and brittle when held under dry heat lamps, or tough and limp when held in moist heat, such as a steam table.

An egg cooked over easy will become a hard-cooked egg when held too long in any type of heat.

To overcome possible problems associated with cooking food as it is ordered, it is necessary to have all of the mixes and individual ingredients ready to be cooked when the order is placed by the customer. 

When your mise en place is properly done it is possible to prepare a wide variety of items quickly and serve them at their best to the guest.

Breakfast Cookery

Breakfast in French Style (Petit Dejeuner)
Breakfast in French Style (Petit Dejeuner)

Egg Cookery: The mainstay of breakfast in the western country the glorious egg.

A basic rule for eggs used in breakfast cookery is freshness.  You should use only the freshest egg. Remember, as egg ages, the white begins to thin and the yolk begins to flatten. 

Neither of these characteristics is desirable in an egg prepared for breakfast, particularly one which is fried or poached.

There are six methods of egg preparation which are most commonly used in breakfast cookery.

  1. Boiled in Shell
  2. Fried Eggs
  3. Scrambled Eggs
  4. Omelet
  5. Poached Eggs
  6. Shirred Eggs

Boiled Eggs

Boiled eggs are one of the most widely used types of cooked eggs.  This use, however, is not always at the breakfast meal.

The hard-boiled egg is used as an ingredient in many dishes and as a garnish for many dishes. 

Both soft-boiled eggs are prepared in the same manner but with a difference in the cooking time.

NOTE: Eggs are not actually boiled. Although termed hard – or soft-boiled, they are hard or soft-cooked in simmering water.  The rapid agitation of boiling water will cause unnecessary cracking of the egg.


To prepare boiled eggs:

Select only those eggs which are free of cracks. Eggs which have cracks will seep during the cooking process and will not be suitable for service.

Bring a quantity of water sufficient to cover the eggs completely, to a rapid boil.

Carefully lower the eggs into the water and reduce to a simmer (180° – 185° F)

Cook for 3-8 minutes for soft-boiled eggs and 10 minutes for hard-boiled eggs.

It should be noted that if the hard-cooked egg is to be used cold or at a later time, it should be cooled immediately.  The surface of the hard-boiled egg’s yolk may sometimes develop a grayish-green layer.

This is a result of the formation of ferrous sulfide, a problem that is talked about with scrambled eggs.  This is a reaction between the iron in the yolk and the sulphur in the white or yolk of the egg. 

The best way to prevent this is to cook eggs just long enough for them to be hard-cooked and then to cool them as quickly as possible.


Fried Eggs

Most American chefs will admit that the fried egg probably tops the list of breakfast orders.  There are four types of fried eggs: Over easy, hard fried, basted and sunny side up. 

The preparation of each of the four types begins in the same manner, but the steps for finishing them are different. 

To prepare an egg over easy, hard fried, basted or sunny-side up follow the guidelines listed below.

Heat a sauté or frying pan and then add the fat, clarified butter, bacon fat, shortening, oil or margarine.

When the fat bubbles, slip the eggs into the pan. It is best if the eggs are cracked open into a dish before being placed in the pan.

For over-easy fried:

Cook the egg until the white is set

Flip the egg by pushing the pan forward and then pulling back sharply. The curvature of the egg pan should allow the egg to flip over.

Continue to cook until the white is firmly set but the yolk is still soft.

For hard fried:

Cook the egg until the white is set

Puncture the yolk of the egg, and then flip in the same manner as that for over-easy.

Continue to cook until both the white and yolk are firmly set.

For basted:

(Do not flip) Baste the yolk of the egg with hot fat or cover the pan and allow the egg to steam slightly.

In either case the egg yolk is slightly whitened.  The egg is cooked until the white is firmly set and the egg yolk is thoroughly heated but soft.

Breakfast in French Style (Petit Dejeuner)
Breakfast in French Style (Petit Dejeuner)

For sunny-side up:

Cook the egg, without flipping or basting, until the white is set firmly and the yolk is thoroughly heated but soft.

Note: The preparation of any type of fried egg requires close attention to the amount of heat used. 

Too high a heat cooks the egg too quickly, toughening the bottom and leaving the yolk cold.  This is particularly a problem with basted and sunny-side-up eggs. 

The temperature should be sufficient to allow the egg to cook to the desired degree of doneness without being toughened, yet heating the white and yolk thoroughly.

The traditional fried egg can also be prepared on the griddle.  The steps remain the same with the exception being that the eggs will be turned with a spatula. 

Eggs are often cooked on the griddle using an egg ring to ensure a perfectly round shape for the final product.

There is an additional method of preparing a fried egg which is not often used.  This is the deep-frying of an egg. 

French cuisine, on rare occasions, calls for this type of egg.  The raw egg is slid into a skillet half-filled with hot fat.  The eggs rapidly expand and frizzle. 

Using two wooden spatulas, the expanded egg white is pushed toward the egg yolk center and re-formed into the shape of an egg.

The fried egg is removed after one to two minutes in the hot fat, otherwise excessive browning will occur.  

The cooking should be rapid enough that the yolk remains liquid.  The cooked egg is served on a slice of toast, grilled tomato with bacon or in otherwise excessive browning will occur. 

The cooking should be rapid enough that the yolk remains liquid.  The cooked egg is served on a slice of toast, grilled tomato with bacon or in other ways. 

It may also be used to garnish some meat dishes, such as veal Marengo.

Breakfast in French Style (Petit Dejeuner)
Breakfast in French Style (Petit Dejeuner)

Scrambled Eggs

Scrambled eggs are another popular breakfast item. They can be prepared with or without the addition of milk, depending on the preference of the chef and the guest. 

To prepare scrambled eggs:

Beat the desired number of eggs until well blended. If milk is used, the normal proportion is ½ cup to 6 eggs, and it is added when the eggs are beaten.

Heat a sauté or frying pan and add fat.

When the fat bubbles, pour your beaten egg into the pan. The fat should be hot, but not excessively so or the eggs will frizzle.

Shake the pan while stirring the eggs. There should be no egg whites showing, and the eggs should be cooked to a creamy consistency.  The longer you cook the scrambled egg, the tougher it becomes.

It is best to remove it from the heat slightly undercooked, allowing the carry-over heat to finish setting the egg.


Scrambled eggs may be served in many ways: On anchovy toast, with cooked diced sweetbreads, with boiled calf brains, with diced cooked ham, bacon, minced onion, chopped olives or sliced mushrooms, to name a few.

Scrambled eggs Grand Mere have small dices of bread fried in clarified butter added to them and are then sprinkled with chopped parsley.

Scrambled eggs are a common item on breakfast and brunch buffets.  However, ferrous sulfide is a problem as discussed with boiled eggs, when cooked eggs are held warm for long periods. 

In the case of scrambled eggs, the exposure to heat over an extended period can turn them an unappetizing green color. 

This can be minimized by blending cream or cream sauce into the eggs while they are still slightly undercooked.

Breakfast in French Style (Petit Dejeuner)
Breakfast in French Style (Petit Dejeuner)


Omelets have been and continue to be a popular breakfast item and are also often seen on menus at other times of the day.  It is the versatility of this dish which makes it a highly desirable menu item. 

In reality, the basic omelet is nothing more than scrambled eggs enclosed in a coating of coagulated egg. 

It can be served plain or embellished with countless garnitures, some of which are culinary classics.

There are a variety of types of omelets:  Rolled, folded in half, thirds, left flat or puffed.  The type prepared will be determined by the preferences of the chef and the guest. 

Additionally, there is disagreement as to whether water, milk or cream should be added to the beaten egg. 

There are chefs who claim that the incorporation of milk or cream enriches an omelet.

Other chefs proclaim the virtue of water, stating that it makes the omelet lighter, they feel that the milk or cream toughens the omelet.

Standing clear of this dispute are those chefs who declare the self-sufficiency of the egg. They see no need to add anything to something which is already perfect.

Whichever side you choose in this discussion, the basic method for preparation remains the same.  To prepare a basic omelet:

Begin as you would for scrambled eggs, but as the eggs set up, stop stirring and shake the pan. It is necessary to let the eggs set, but not stick to the pan.

When the eggs are just at the soft, runny stage, add your filler.

At this point the omelet may be rolled, folded in half or thirds depending on the technique used.

Breakfast in French Style (Petit Dejeuner)
Breakfast in French Style (Petit Dejeuner)

Omelets may be filled with a wide variety of items, such as chicken livers, cheese, mushrooms, spinach, seafood, herbs, asparagus, and many others. 

A few of the classical omelet finishes are omelet fermiere, which has very lean diced cooked ham added to the beaten egg. 

This type of omelet is not folded. It is served pancake-style (open face) and may need to be finished under the salamander to prevent the bottom from becoming too brown.

The omelet parmentier is served American-style, folded.  Sautéed, diced potato and chopped parsley are added just at the point of the egg setting and then the omelet is folded and served hot.

An additional type of omelet is the soufflé omelet. For this dish, the white and yolk of the egg are separated. 

The whites are whipped separately to the consistency of whipped cream.  The egg yolks are then beaten and the whites are folded into them. 

The mixture is poured into a pan which is hot and lubricated. 

The omelet is cooked on top of the range until the bottom is set and depending on your philosophy, slightly brown. 

The egg pan is then placed in either the oven or the salamander to finish.


The result is a puffy, soufflé-like omelet. It can be filled by slitting, adding filler, then folding. 

However, it is also possible to add the filler just after the bottom of the omelet has set and allow it to cook in the omelet.

This type of omelet is well suited for use as a dessert when filled with a fruit filling or topped with a sweet sauce.

Special Considerations in Omelet Making:

This extremely simple preparation is complicated when a few basic things are allowed to get out of hand. 

Temperature is extremely important.  If the temperature of the fat and pan is too low the egg will not set properly and is likely to stick to the pan. 

If the temperature is too high the outside of the omelet will brown excessively before the egg is set. 

While there may be disagreement among chefs as to whether or not omelets should be browned or not, there is agreement that they should not be frizzled or burned.

The condition of the omelet pan itself is of major importance.  The rolling and folding of the omelet is done with the assistance of the shape of the pan, more so than spatulas.

For this to take place the eggs must be able to slip across the surface of the pan. 

The use of fat assists in this; however, the goal is to use as little fat as possible.  The surface of the pan itself must be well seasoned. 

A folded omelet can and often is, prepared on the griddle, however, as with the pan, the griddle must be well seasoned to allow the use of as little fat as possible.


The pans used for omelets, scrambled eggs or fried egg preparations are normally either fry pans or sauté pans.

Whichever type of pan is used, unless it has a surface that has a non-stick coating, it must be properly prepared.

This is termed seasoning the pan.  First, clean the pan well with soap, water, and a scouring pad.  Then rinse and dry it. 

Next, heat the pan until the bottom is just barely too hot to touch with your hand. Remove it from the heat and rub with cooking oil, then let it stand overnight.

Just before making your first omelet, rub the pan with a little salt and a paper towel.

If the pan is used only for omelets, simply rub it with salt and put it away. If it is necessary to wash it with soap and water, then repeat the process.

Poached Eggs

Breakfast in French Style (Petit Dejeuner)
Breakfast in French Style (Petit Dejeuner)

Poached eggs are used in a variety of ways in breakfast service.  One difficulty of this preparation method is keeping the form of the egg in the cooking process. 

This is much easier when only the freshest eggs are used.  The whites will remain more closely gathered around the yolk and not spread out in thin wisps. 

The yolk in the cooked egg should remain soft and tender. 


To prepare poached eggs:

Put sufficient water in a pan of suitable size. Add a small amount of salt and vinegar or lemon juice to the water. 

These help to hold the white around the egg yolk.

Bring the water to a boil and reduce to a simmer.

Crack your eggs into dishes and then slide into the simmering water. Then cook the eggs until the desired degree of doneness is reached.

Carefully remove from the water with a slotted spoon.


The result should be a semi-liquid egg yolk enclosed in the cooked white of the egg. 

If the egg is not to be served immediately, place it in an ice-water bath to stop the cooking process.

It can then be easily re-heated for service later by placing in simmering water for 30 or more seconds.

Poached eggs are often served on toast or with corned beef or roast beef hash.  They are also used in the preparation of egg benedict, a classic brunch dish.  

To prepare eggs benedict, toast an English muffin half and butter lightly, then place a lightly grilled slice of Canadian bacon on the muffin, then an egg poached in the method given earlier. 

Finally, top the preparation with hollandaise sauce and serve immediately.


Shirred Eggs

Shirred eggs are prepared in a special kind of dish.  The shirred egg dish can be chinaware or metal skillets in a variety of sizes.  The prepared egg is served in the dish.

The dish is buttered and then placed on a hot stovetop.  Crack your eggs into a dish and slide into the shirred dish when the butter just begins to brown. 

Finish the egg in a hot oven, but just long enough to set the white. The yolk should still be liquid.

Shirred eggs should be assembled with the garnishes placed to one side in the dish.  The purpose of this to keep them from touching the yolk of the egg. 

The finished dish should contain the cooked, but liquid yolk to one side and the garnish to the other, with the solid cooked egg white overall.

There are many variations of the basic shirred egg.  The most common is that of the country-style eggs with bacon or ham. 

Cooked bacon or grilled ham slices are placed to one side, in the bottom of the buttered dish. 

The eggs are then placed on top, with the yolk placed opposite the garnish. The dish is then finished in the oven and served immediately. 

Other variations included eggs hunter-style garnished with chicken livers and a spoon of brown sauce; eggs Meyerbeer, prepared with grilled lamb kidney; eggs a la Reine, made with sweetbreads and eggs princess, which include white asparagus tips and hollandaise sauce.


In addition to these six methods, there are a wide variety of others which are used for special preparation.

One is eggs en croute which is egg cooked in a crepe.  A crepe is placed in the buttered compartment of a muffin pan and the excess crepe is trimmed off. 

One egg is slid into each crepe and then dotted with butter and seasoned with salt and pepper.  T

he muffin pan is then placed in an oven and cooked until the egg white is almost set and the yolk is glossy. It is best to remove the dish from the oven when the egg is slightly underdone. 

It will continue to cook on the steam table if it is being held before service.  This dish can be topped with bacon, sausage, cheese, mushrooms or a suitable sauce.

Eggs en cocotte are served in small silver, earthenware or porcelain saucepan which has a small handle.

The cocotte is warmed and garnished, and the eggs are slid into it.  The cocotte is then carefully placed in a warm water bath that is within ½ inch of the brim of the cocotte. 

It is partially covered, to allow steam to escape, and is placed in an oven for approximately 8 to 10 minutes.  The dish is cooked until the whites are almost set and the yolk is glossy.

Breakfast in French Style (Petit Dejeuner)
Breakfast in French Style (Petit Dejeuner)

Breakfast Cereals

Cereals of various types are a common breakfast item.  These include the cold cereals which can be offered in a pleasing display on a buffet for the guests to serve themselves, or served at the table.

They are served with milk or cream and sugar at the very least.  An assortment of fresh fruits, such as bananas, blueberries, strawberries, apples, and raisins may also be offered with them.

Oatmeal, cream of wheat, muesli and hominy grits are all examples of hot cereals often served at breakfast. 

The majority of these cereals are served with the same accompaniments as cold cereals.

However, in the case of hominy grits, they may be used as a replacement for potatoes on the breakfast menu.  In this case, they are not served with sugar or cream.

Breakfast Meats

The most popular breakfast meats are bacon, country sausage, and ham.  The pre-cooking of the bacon and sausage is an important part of the mise in place for the breakfast cook. 

Country sausage, either patties or links may be placed on sheet pans and baked in the oven at 350-375° F.

Be careful not to overcook the sausage, it dries out easily.  Sausage links may also be pre-prepped by blanching them in water.  They can then be drained and held for service. 

When needed, the sausages can quickly be lightly browned on the griddle or in a heavy fry pan.  This method keeps the links moist yet they can be rapidly finished.

The sausages often utilized for the breakfast meal, country style, and link, are raw sausages, generally made of fresh ground pork. 

Breakfast in French Style (Petit Dejeuner) (20) (1)
Breakfast in French Style (Petit Dejeuner)

These must be thoroughly cooked to protect against bacterial contamination.  This does not mean, however, that they must be cooked until they are dried out.

Country style, patty, and link sausages can be cooked to order.  This reduces waste from overproduction, as well as giving the guest the freshest possible product. 

When cooking them to order, use either the griddle or a heavy fry pan.  Cooking them at 325-350° F will allow the sausages to cook through without excessive browning or drying.

Bacon may also be pre-cooked by being placed in individual slices (if time allows, give each slice a single twist to reduce shrinkage) on sheet pans and baked off in an oven at 350-375° F for 10-12 minutes.  A word of caution in cooking bacon is needed. 

Generally, bacon is thinly sliced.  Once it begins to cook, it does so rapidly.  It should be monitored closely to prevent it from becoming too done. 

It is also best to place the bacon slices on a rack in the sheet pan when possible.  This is also true for sausages.

This will allow the fats to accumulate away from the meat as it cooks, resulting in a less greasy finished product.  Here again, it is important that it not be overcooked.

As with sausages, bacon can be cooked by the order.  This can be done in a heavy frypan; however, it is best done on a griddle.  When cooking bacon on the griddle, 350° F is the preferred temperature. 

This temperature allows the bacon to cook and brown evenly, without excessive shrinkage or burnt edges. 

Bacon cooks best on the griddle when some type of weight is used to prevent it from curling, which does not affect the flavor but does mar the appearance of the finished product.

Ham is breakfast meat that is best, not pre-cooked.  It may be pre-sliced and portioned, however, it is not necessary to pre-cook it. 

When placed on a hot griddle, in a heavy hot fry pan or in a hot broiler, it will cook very quickly.  Pre-cooking will only make ham dry and unappetizing.

The portioning and, if desired for sausage and bacon, panning of these meats may be done the day before they are to be used. 

When pre-prepping meats in this manner they must be tightly wrapped and properly refrigerated until used. As with all hot foods, they must be served hot.

Breakfast in French Style (Petit Dejeuner)
Breakfast in French Style (Petit Dejeuner)

Breakfast Potatoes

Hash browns, home fries, and cottage fries are all examples of the types of potatoes served at breakfast.

The pre-prepping of the potatoes is just as important a part of your mise en place as the pre-portioning of breakfast meats.

The potatoes from which the items are to be prepared are normally cooked and processed the day before. 

The whole potatoes are thoroughly scrubbed, then steamed or boiled until they can be pierced with a fork using slight pressure.


They are then peeled and shredded for has browns; peeled and sliced thin for home fries, or peeled and sliced one-quarter inch thick for cottage fries.

The potatoes re then refrigerated and held till needed. 

At service, the amount of potatoes needed is sautéed in a frying pan or on a griddle in butter, margarine, oil, bacon fat or shortening and seasoned with salt and pepper. 

In this manner, it is possible to serve the customer a freshly prepared potato in a short period of time.

Pancakes & Waffles, Etc.

Two favorite breakfast items are pancakes and waffles. This seems to be true no matter what part of the United States you are in. 

Both are relatively simple to make and cook quickly; however, there is more difference between a pancake and a waffle than just the cooking surface (a pancake is cooked on a griddle and a waffle in a waffle iron). 

The mixtures are similar, but the waffle is normally a richer, lighter, crisper product.


Breakfast in French Style (Petit Dejeuner)
Breakfast in French Style (Petit Dejeuner)

The pancake and waffle contain virtually the same ingredients, however, the amounts and handling of them differ. 

The waffle contains a higher quantity of fat, sugar, and eggs.  In addition, the eggs used in waffles are often separated.

The yolks are blended with the other liquids and the whites are whipped separately. 

The whipped egg whites are then combined with the rest of the mixture just prior to cooking, giving it a lighter, crisper texture.

French Toast

French toast is not as popular as waffles and pancakes but has remained in solid demand at breakfast. 

This dish is bread (preferably slightly stale) dipped into egg or an egg, milk and sugar mixture. 

It is cooked either on a hot griddle or pan-fried in clarified butter.  The most common method in the commercial kitchen is cooking it on the griddle. 


A standard batter would be 20 eggs, two cups sugar and one pint of milk, seasoned with vanilla and nutmeg.

This can be prepared the day before and refrigerated until needed.  Depending on the richness desired, the cream can be used instead of milk. 

The bread is soaked briefly in the batter, allowing it to absorb part of the mixture, and then cooked on the griddle like a pancake. 

French toast is served sprinkled with powdered sugar and accompanied by butter and syrup.

Breakfast Bread

A list of bread considered suitable for service at breakfast would be very long.  The choice of the guest will change from one part of the country to another.

The most common choices are toast, white, whole-wheat or other, and sweet rolls or doughnuts of various kinds.

In many parts of the United States biscuits are considered a breakfast staple.  In many places, muffins, English muffins or bagels are just as popular.

Freshness is the primary consideration for breakfast bread.  They should be served warm and fresh with suitable accompaniments.

Fresh does not necessarily mean that the items must be baked the day they are served. It does mean that they have been handled and stored in a manner that has maintained their flavor and texture. 

There is a wide variety of prepared, frozen baked goods available, such as Danish rolls and biscuits, that are of high quality. 

When it is not possible for a kitchen to produce all of the baked goods needed, these are often used.

Specialty items such as bagels may be purchased fresh from a high-quality local source or frozen.

There are a variety of quick breads that can be prepared with little difficulty or equipment that will enhance the breakfast menu.  In particular, this includes muffins of all types and biscuits.

Breakfast in French Style (Petit Dejeuner)

Fresh Fruit & Juices

Breakfast is considered incomplete by many people if it does not include a glass of fruit juice or some fruit. 

The types of fruit often served at breakfast include melons of all types, strawberries, raspberries, kiwis, grapefruits, oranges and bananas. 

The melons, oranges and grapefruit can be pre-prepped a day ahead, allowing for quick service. 

The other fruits should be prepared closer to service to prevent deterioration of their quality prior to service.

The fruits are often used as part of what is termed a continental breakfast which consists of an offering of breakfast pastries, fruits, fruit juices, and cold cereals.

Fruit juices are still fresh squeezed in some kitchens; however, the more common practice is the purchase of bottled or canned juices. 

Commonly served juices include orange, grapefruit, apple, grape, tomato, cranberry and pineapple. 

Various juice blends, such as pineapple – orange and cranapple, are gaining popularity. 

Whichever type of juice is served and whether it is freshly squeezed or purchased, it should be served well chilled.

If the juices are pre-poured or prepared from concentrate in advance of use, they must be protected from the odors and flavors of other foods because they are susceptible to strong odors and flavors.

Breakfast in French Style (Petit Dejeuner)
Breakfast in French Style (Petit Dejeuner)


The items we have discussed here as breakfast dishes are definitely applicable to the United States. 

However, as a culinarian, you must be aware that there is a great deal of difference between what individuals consider breakfast foods here and in other parts of the world. 

While bacon, fried eggs, hash brows, toast, and coffee are regular fare here, in Japan the reference maybe for some type of fish, fruit or a breakfast soup. 

In many parts of the world cheese, fruit and various rolls or bread are the standard breakfast fare. 

As you begin to expand your horizons, you will find that there is truly a world of difference between what is considered breakfast in the U.S. and in some other countries.

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